Decision, intention, expectation, willingness, and volition: Critics and comments

Main Article Content

Bilson Simamora


There are thousands of studies aimed at predicting future behavior. The most outstanding concept in those quests is behavioral intention. However, many researchers fell into misusing those concepts, raising the inaccuracy of the prediction. Many researchers paid no considerable attention to the specific context of their study. This article aims to give the direction to avoid that trap and to straighten out the proper use of the concept of decision, goal intentions, specific intention, implementation, behavioral expectation, behavioral willingness, and volition. The author also outlines their relevance to a particular behavior.

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How to Cite
Simamora, B. (2022). Decision, intention, expectation, willingness, and volition: Critics and comments. Jurnal Ekonomi Perusahaan, 29(1), 1–15.
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Author Biography

Bilson Simamora, Management Department, Kwik Kian Gie School Business and Information Technology, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Simamora, Bilson, is a Professor of management science, Management Department, Kwik Kian Gie School of Business and Information Technology, Jakarta. He earned a master's degree in 1994 in Marketing from Prasetiya Mulya University. He also got a doctoral degree in marketing from the University of Indonesia. His research interests are in consumer behavior and brand management. He has his works published in International Review of Management and Marketing, Journal of Educational, Health, and Community Psychology, ASEAN Marketing Journal, Humaniora, Marketing Science Letters,  International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, Gadjah Mada International Journal of Business, including dozen books published by notable publishers, and hundreds of marketing and research materials posted in

Author’s contact detail: Kwik Kian Gie School of Business, Jl. Yos Sudarso Kavling 87 Sunter Podomoro, Jakarta, Indonesia, Phone: +62165307062, Fax.: +62165306967, Email:


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